Meghalaya: Basic Information
Soils of Warm Per Humid Agro-Eco Sub-Region (Zone) with Thermic Temperature Regimes.
Location and extent: The per humid thermic sub eco-region (Zone) comprise the Central Plateau Region of the East Khasi, West Khasi and Jaintia Hills District. The Sub Eco-Region occupies area 641.8 thousand hectares representing 30.1 percent of the total geographical area of the State.
Agro - Climate: The agro-climate of the thermic sub-eco region is characterised by warm summer and cold winters belonging to semi-temperate climate. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 2415 to 11418mm and Potential evapotranspiration (PE) ranges from 889 to 961mm. The sub-eco-region experiences a short water deficit of 25 to 132mm due to seasonal dry spells during post-monsoon period.
Soils: Soils developed on hill side and/or escarpments are moderately shallow to deep, loamy skeletal to fine and excessively drained subject to moderate to very severe erosion hazards. Soils have structural/coloured to well developed textural B-horizon and comprise Typic/Umbric dystrochrepts, Typic Kandihumults/Haplohumults and Typic Knadidults. Soils of hill top/upper hill slopes are shallow to deep, loamy skeletal to fine loamy and excessively drained with severe to very severe erosion hazards. Mostly soils having structural or coloured B-horizon belong to Typic/Umbric dystrochrepts while the Typic/Lithic Udorthents show either eroded soils or the soils at initiation of development with A/C horizon.
Soils of valleys are deep, fine loamy, poorly drained with very slight erosion. They have structural B-horizon and comprise Humic Haplaquepts. All these soils are strongly acid, humus rich and have low based saturation.
Land Use: The natural vegetation comprises grassland and pine forest. The area is especially under Paddy, Potato, Maize, Vegetables and fruits (Citrus and Pineapples).
- Soil erosion
- Soil acidity
- Excessive leaching, resulting in depletion of nutrients and soils of low base status
- Landslides in some of the areas
- Shallow soil depth in upper hill slopes and hill tops